Issue Number: Vol. 3, No. 2
Year of Publication: 2013
Page Numbers: 19-29
Authors: D. Govind Rao, N. S. Murthy, A.Vengadarajan
Journal Name: International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA)
- Hong Kong


This paper describes architecture for a digital beam former developed for 16 element phased array radar. The digital beam former architecture includes the complex operations such as down conversion which is done in parallel for the signal coming from each of the antenna elements and the filtering. A high performance FPGA is employed to perform these operations. An echo signal of 5 MHz riding on the IF signal of 60 MHz is down converted digitally to the baseband of the echo signal. The baseband echo signal is then multiplied by the complex weights and then summed to form the beam. The complex weights can be computed offline and online using two different approaches for implementation of an adaptive filter using QRD-RLS (Q R decomposition based Recursive Least Squares) algorithm for Phased Array Radar application. One approach involves back substitution procedure whereas another involves updating of inverse data matrix. The former approach is called as Conventional QRD-RLS and the later is called as Inverse QRD-RLS. The developed VLSI Architecture employs 16 bit 125 MS/s ADCs and a very high performance state of the art Xilinx FPGA device Vertex-IV VLX240T to form multiple receive beams simultaneously. The device used has large number of on chip resources for the parallel processing and the 200MHz clock generator. The complex weights are externally calculated OR internally calculated adaptively using highly stable Q-R decomposition and Inverse Q-R decomposition based recursive least squares algorithm.